About Our Umingan
Useful information about our humble abode.
Umingan is located at the foot of Caraballo Mountains, it lies at the East-Southernmost part of Pangasinan. It is bounded by the towns of Lupao on the east and Cuyapo-Talugtog on the South, both bordering towns in the province of Nueva Ecija, on the north by the town of San Quintin, and on the west by Balungao, both in the province of Pangasinan .
It is approximately 200 kilometres North of Manila and 86 Kilometres east of Lingayen, the capital town of Pangasinan, 40 kilometres to Urdaneta City, and 140 kilometres to San Fernando City, La Union which is the Regional Center, and 120 Kilometres to Baguio City,the Summer Capital of the Philippines. It can be reached through land transportation by bus and other vehicles. It lies within 120 Degree 45’ to 120 degree-551’ north Latitude and 15 degree 50’ to 15 degree 55’ east longitude.
Umingan has a land area of 29,753 hectares, as per record of the Bureau of Lands, now Land Management and Sector (LMS) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). About 1,668.37 hectares comprises the urban barangays, while 28,084.97 hectares comprises the rural barangays. Barangay Baracbac has the largest area while Barangay Poblacion East has the smallest. (Refer to Table 2). It has 27,470.30 hectares of Alienable Disposable land or 92.33 percent of the municipality; the rest is forestland in Caraballo Mountain and Amorong Mountain. (See Table on Land Classification.)
The municipality is generally accessible from all four directions. From north to south, Umingan is a 15 minute hour trip from San Jose City, located 24 kms North West of San Jose City. Since the municipality is located along San Jose City -Rosales National Road, all modes of transportation going to Cagayan from Baguio, Ilocos and Dagupan passes through the Municipality. Transportation services include the major bus companies.
Perpendicular to the above mentioned highway system is provincial roads linking the municipality to the province of Nueva Ecija in the North East and North West to Baguio City.These areas are generally accessible to mini buses and passenger vans and jeeps.
Umingan has generally a nearly level terrain at its north western side to its central part and sloping in its north-eastern tip along the Caraballo Mountain. It is moderately sloping to rolling at its southern tip along the Amorong Mountain. Its highest portion is located at the north-eastern tip part of the municipality in Barangay Calitlitan with an elevation of 1,300 meters above sea level.
Most physiographic features of the soils in the municipality are composed of rolling to volcanic hills consisting of 22.65 percent equivalent to approximately 6,739.52 hectares. It is followed by broad, alluvial plain with an area of 6,632 hectares or 22.29 percent of the total land area of the municipality and which is subjected to seasonal run-off or flooding; broad alluvation/plain not subject to seasonal run-off flooding with 6,513.03 or 21.09 percent, broad alluvial plain, subject to seasonal run-off flooding with an area of 3,349.97 or 11.26 percent; highly dissected with sharp and bounded hills and bridges long side slope with some small stock of diorite intrusion having an area of 2,029.92 or 6.82 percent; braided river with a total area of 529.42 or
1.78 percent; intermediary valleys with less than 25 meter elevation with an area of 516.42 or 1.74 percent; volcanic cone located part of Luna Este, San Juan, and Amorong Mountain with an area of 249.29 hectares of 0.84 percent and river levee located part of Cabalitian, Decreto, La Paz, Papallasen and San Leon with a total land area of 137.55 hectares of 0.46 percent of the total land area. (See Table 4)
Knowledge of the types of soil enables and gives farmers information on the exact kind of fertilizers conductive to their lands and the right kind of plant variety expected to increase the productive capability of the land. The soils of municipality were systematically examined and found as follows:
Annam Clay Loam
The soil consists of all drained deep soil, dark brown loam, friable granular about 15-20 cm. deep. The boundary with the lower layer is gradual. The upper sub-soil is yellowish brown clay loam, friable and coarse granular structure. It is good for low land rice, root crops, corn, vegetables and some fruit trees and cassava. Located in all barangays except Amaronan, Bantug, Barat, Buenavista, Catangaran, Cabatuan, Capas, Carayungan Sur, Carosalesan, Don Montano, Esperanza, Lauren, Lubong, Maseil-seil and Pangangaan with the total land area of 17,747.24 or 59.65 percent of the municipality.
Umingan Silt Loam
The surface soil is brown sandy loam and friable. The subsoil is dark loam to clay loam. The texture of this layer becomes finer as its Depth increases. The substratum is yellowish brown silty clay loam. It was mapped in Poblacion, Abot Molina, Alo-o, Amaronan, Annam,
Bantug, Baracbac, Barat, Cabangaran, Cabatuan, Calitlitan, Carayungan Sur, Carosalesan, Diket, Cabaroan, Don Montano, Esperanza, Evangelisa, Fulgosino, Lauren, Lubong, Maseil-seil, Ricos, and Nampalcan. It is suitable for rice, corn, mongo, vegetables, and some fruit trees with a total, land area of 7,792.65 hectares or 26.19 percent.
Tarlac Clay Loam
This consists of deep well drained yellowish brown to dark clay loam, porous fine faint diffuse brown mottles slightly sticky, slightly plastic friable, weak fine to medium and moderate granular structure. This type is suited to upland rice, corn, root crops, banana, vegetables and some fruit trees. It can be cultivated safely requires simple but good farm management practices. This covers 1,443.73 hectares located at the part of Pemienta, Barat, Buenavista, Capas, Esperanza, Flores, Lubong, Nampalcan, Del Rosario, and Sta. Maria.
San Miguel Sandy Loam
The surface soil is grayish brown to brown clay loam which is slightly sticky when moist. The substratum is yellowish to reddish brown to fine to medium sand. It is easily podded and becomes hard when dry. This is suitable for upland sweet potato, corn, and tomato, sugarcane located at some parts of Buenavista, Cabalitian, Flores, Labuan, La Paz, and Mantacdang.
Pangasinan River Silts
Of very little agricultural importance, this consists of gray, coarse to find sand. This is located in some parts of Caurdanetaan, Nancalabasaan, Pemienta, Annam, Barat, Cabaroan, La Paz, Laureen, Tanggal Sawang and part of Decreto.
There are no erosions on the barangays Portions of Baracbac, Cabangaran, Carosalesan, Maseil-seil, Cabatuan, Abot Molina,Bantug, Don Montano, Caurdanetaan, Don Justo Abalos, Capas, Pemienta, Nancalabasaan, Lauren, Lubong, Del Rosario, Esperenza, Barat, Amaronan,
Evangelista, Buenavista, Mantacdang, Tanggal Sawang, Sinabaan, Cabalitian, Labuan, Papallasen, La Paz, Decreto, San Leon, San Andres, Gonzales, Cabaruan, Prado, Resurrecion, Annam, Diket ,Portions of
Resurrecion, Santa Rosa, San Vicente, Cadis, San Pablo, Casilan, San Juan, Portions of Casilan, Pangangaan, Concepcion, San Juan, Luna Weste, Luna Este, Prado, Fulgosino, Nampalcan.
However, there are slight erosions on the barangays portions of Baracbac, Cabangaran, Carosalesan, Maseil-seil, Cabatuan, Abot Molina,Bantug, Don Montano, Caurdanetaan, Don Justo Abalos, Capas, Pemienta, Nancalabasaan, Lauren, Lubong, Del Rosario, Esperenza, Barat, Amaronan, Evangelista, Buenavista, Mantacdang, Tanggal Sawang, Sinabaan, Cabalitian, Labuan, Papallasen, La Paz, Decreto, San Leon, San Andres, Gonzales, Cabaruan, Prado, Resurrecion, Annam, Diket
Portions of Resurrecion, Santa Rosa, San Vicente, Cadis, San Pablo,Casilan, San Juan,Portions of Casilan, Pangangaan, Concepcion, San Juan, Luna Weste, Luna Este, Prado, Fulgosino, Nampalcan, Carayungan Sur, Abot Molina, Cabatuan, Portions of Sta. Maria, Gpnzales, Ricos, Luna Este, Luna Weste, Diaz, Baracbac, Tebag, Amorong Mountain, Caraballo Mountain,Portions of Tebag, Calitlitan, Annam and Diket.
Severe erosion occurs on the steep slope especially those along the sides of the mountains and the rivers due to deforestation and exposure of the soil to the elements like rainfall and excessive heat as a result of deforestation and destruction of plants and grass cover of the soil.
Umingan is endowed with rich natural resources. On top of this land are two mountains namely the Caraballo Mountain and the Amorong Mountain where the leftover forest still abide. The Banilla River, the Carayungan, Mangoes and Caracas creeks and the rich alluvial plains which are basically cultivated for agriculture are other natural resource endowments of the municipality.
As a result of erosion of soils from the mountains the lowest portion of the river accumulated rich deposits of non-metallic minerals like gravel, sand and clay.
Water Bodies and Natural Drainage and Hydrological Characteristics
The municipality is easily drained due to its many river tributaries. Banilla River in the northern part of the municipality starts from the undulating slope of Caraballo Mountain and passes through the several barangays and drains towards the lower portion of San Leon and Decreto. In the southern portion of Umingan, at the higher slopes of the Amorong Mountain, its river tributary drains towards the lower portion of Baracbac, Carayungan Sur, then to Alo-o and outside of the province joining the bigger river tributaries like the Agno River.
Smaller rivers and creeks have constant supply of surface water which are utilized for irrigating or watering the rice lands permanently. During dry season, however, 50 percent of these creeks and river tributaries have no surface water can be crossed by land transportation without the use of bridges. However, during strong storms and heavy rains the water rises up to a level of ten (10) feet.
Umingan is predominantly composed of alluvium, alluvial fans and riverwash. The rest are quaternary volcanic and pyroclastic rocks (15.36) and metamorphic rocks (9.16). Because of these, sandstones are exposed to the elements. During rainy season surface run-off is very dominant due to lack of water holding capacity of the rocks.
The municipality does not experience so much flooding problem because 67.91 percent or a total of 20,203.93 hectares is elevated. Water coming from the higher slopes is evenly distributed towards the creeks and rivers which drain towards the Agno River tributaries. Only those areas along riverbanks and the foot of the mountains experience moderate flooding and strong river current or washing due to flash floods during heavy rains. However, due to porosity of the sands and sandstone along this flood prone area, the flash floods easily subside depending on the amount of rainfall that comes along.
Seismic and Volcanic Activities
The municipality is transversed with a fault line on the north western portion of Barangays Calitlitan, Annam, and Caraballo Mountain,Mount Amorong was discovered as dormant volcano. Areas affected are considered as constrained area.
The climate of Umingan fits well under Type I Classification, which is characterized by two pronounced seasons-wet and dry. The months of July up to October are months where the most rainfall occurs while of February to April are considered the driest months of the year.